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Asked on 16.03.2021.
Lab scale: marie biscuits


I am doing lab scale marie biscuits. But i have never seen how the marie biscuit dough looks like especially right after mixing. Is it supposed to be dough like or crumbly like? Would like to have advice or sharing on the below.

Recipe (all in method, chemicals are not predissolved with water). T= temperature of ingredients, room temperature = 30-32degC: 

Flour 100% (soft wheat 8-9% protein, T= 29-32degC), water 26.4% (T=32-35degC), sugar granulated 24%, shortening 12%, salt 0.63%, ammonium bicarbonate 0.27%, sodium bicarbonate 0.5%, SMS 0.09%, soya lecithin (Liquid) 0.13%

Mixing (planetary mixer 20L bowl with hook, all in method):

Speed 1: 2min (till form a lump)

Speed 2: 10min (till achieve 40-42degC)

The dough looks like the below picture. Is it a correct marie biscuit dough texture?

I have checked the dough texture at Speed 2 5th min, 7th min and 10th min. All are similar, just that there's an increase in temperature and softness of dough.

Sheeting (after mixing, directly go for sheeting without rest. 2 types of sheeting done):

1. Without layering (sheet to actual thickness of 1.5mm, perforate with pizza docker, and manually stamp to round shape)

2. With 4 layers (sheet to actual thickess of 2mm, book fold twice, sheet to actual thickness 1.5mm, perforate, stamp)

Baking (3 tier deck oven, top 220degC, bottom 210degC, 10sec steam, 5.5min baking, using perforated tray).

Additional questions:

1. Colour after baking seems uneven. How can we make the colour more even?

2. There are tiny brown spots on the surface of biscuits. Is it due to undissolved chemicals? Which chemical specifically?

3. Texture of marie biscuits very hard. Is it correct to increase dosage of ammonium bicarbonate to get the soft texture? If yes, how much to add in total (baker's %)? Any other methods to increase softness of biscuits?

4. Is 10sec steam during initial baking is enough to get the sheen or longer steaming time is needed? Other than giving sheen, what other function does steam have?

5. No resting after mixing. Is it okay? What is the purpose of resting the dough? Is the dough let rest in a bulk ball shape or make into dough slab and rest?

6. Is the lamination method correct?

Thank you in advance for your help 🙏



Answered on 21.03.2021.

Hi, Mr. Andrew.

How can I avoid premature reaction of Ammonia Bicarbonate? 



Answered on 24.03.2021.

Hi, Mr. Srinivasan.

You are right. Milk powder is the culprit for the brown spots. I totally removed the milk powder from my recipe and the brown spots just disappeared!! Thank you for the advice.


Amye :)

Answered on 24.03.2021.

Hi, Mr. Andrew.

Thanks for the suggestion on having few steps in mixing instead of "all in". I get a bit more volume. And i did put some spacers between oven and perforated baking tray. I believe it did contribute to volume too.

I have tried layering and without layering. Without layering is really very hard the texture of biscuits. With layering, 60% much better. Softer crunch. But still not as soft crunch as those marie biscuits available in the market. Is it due to the dosage of sodium bicarbonate (0.5% baker's %) and ammonia bicarbonate (0.54%) are not sufficient?

I also did some emboss on the dough sheet before baking and poke deep holes to avoid blisters. Both method really helps.

Thank you very much for the guidance provided🙏

Still need to do more trials to get a good texture marie biscuits. :)

With layering

Above picture shows with layering. About 6mm after baked. Before bake is 2mm.

Below pictures are without layering.

Biscuits does not raise much in volume. Difficult for me to control the baking. Dough sheet 1.5mm thickness. After baked is around 4-5mm. And the texture is very compact and hard crunch.



Answered on 25.03.2021.

Hi, J. Azevedo.

Thank you for the insights.

May i know if the water and fat content that you mentioned is of Baker's % or True %?

I have tried mixing using the same mixing time but removing Sodium Metabisulfite totally. And yes, i get a bit crumbly dough. However, still able to be sheeted for forming and cutting processes. Picture below shows the dough texture. Is it similar to what you mentioned?

However, i am still facing a problem. The dough temperature can only reach about 35degC and not the targeted 40degC. And automatically the dough extensibility is lesser during sheeting due to the temperature is not warm enough to weaken the dough.

The end product from the dough also looks oval a bit as the dough is not extensible enough. Any idea on getting higher temperature but not overmixing the dough? Initially my thinking was the wheat flour used is of soft wheat, it will be very much difficult to mix till it form gluten. Hence, longer mixing time will not be an issue as long as the temperature could be reached.



Answered on 18.03.2021.

Thank you Andrew for the advice. I have tried using sms solution on the following day after i have posted this. It really gives lighter texture and softer bite to the marie biscuit.

Just that i am not sure why the sodium bicarbonate that i used causes the tiny brown spots on the surface of the biscuit.

Just to share, i did both layering and without layering methods. With 3 bookfolds, the texture is lighter and with soft crunch vs 2 bookfolds or no layering. 

I am tuning the oven temperature to lower readings to get not too crunchy texture too.



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