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Glossary of baking process - Biscuit people

The most commonly used terms in baking process. Overview of ingredients, equipment, procedures in biscuit production and baking in general.

Absorption The amount of water absorbed and retained, expressed as percentage, of flour mass, that is required to produce an optimum dough.
Acetic Acid An organic acid, sour in taste, colourless, and with sharp odour; fan active constituent of vinegar; used in bread formula as mold/rope inhibitor.
Acetone Peroxide A chemical powder, which when added to flour in small quantities ( 1 to 45 mg/kg ) hasthe ability to improve its bread making quality. It is primarily a maturing agent but also has some bleaching action.
Acid Salt A dry, granular white crystal that dissolves in water before acting as an acid. The acid salt reacts chemically with the bicarbonate to release CO2 gas. The type of acid salt used in the baking powder can determine the rate of gas release.
Acid Value It is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize free fatty acids present in 1 g of the fat, and is an indication of the extent of free fatty acids present in an oil or fat.
Acidic pH of less than 7. Acid ingredients react with bases to form salts and water. They have a sour taste. A chemical compound that yields hydrogen ions when in solution.
Active Oxygen Method A method for measuring the stability of fats and oils by bubbling air through the heated materials and measuring the formation of peroxides.
Additive An ingredient added to flour to improve its baking properties or shelf life.
Aerate, Aeration To whip, sift or beat air between particles, as with flour, confectioners sugar, or sugar and butter.
Aeration ( Fat ) The process of incorporation of minute air bubbles in hydrogenated fat; also known as creaming process.
Agave nectar An amber, caloric liquid sweetener, with a low glycemic index, that is made from the core of the succulent agave plant available in two distinct varieties: Light and Amber.
Albumen A class of protein, present in egg, that can be dissolved in water and is coagulable by heat.
Aleurone Layer A botanical term denoting the proteinaceous cellular layer which envelopes the endosperm and separates it from the bran or seed of the wheat kernel.
Alkaline pH greater than 7. Alkalis such as baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) neutralize acids and react with acidic ingredients as a leavener. Alkalis have an excess of hydroxyl ions when in solution.
Alveograph A dough testing instrument that measures the resistance to deformation and extensibility of a clamped disc-shaped piece of dough, by forming a bubble, by means of air pressure applied from below the test piece at a constant temperature.
Amaranth flour Milled from amaranth seeds, it combines well with other flours for smooth-textured quick breads. It has an assertive flavor and especially complements savory breads or pastries. Its lack of gluten means it must be combined with wheat flour in yeast breads.
Ammonium Bicarbonate A white powder which on heating vields ammonia gas, carbon dioxide gas and water vapour. It is used in biscuit manufacture as a chemical aerating agent. It leaves no residue in the baked product and., therefore, imparts no off-taste.
Amylase An enzyme that, in the presence of water, converts large molecules of starch to sugar ( maltose ) units.
Amylograph An instrument that measures the consistency or viscosity of a slurry of starchy flour and water as it is heated through a pre-determined cycle. The viscosity is measured by the resistance that the slurry offers to a mixing paddle. It is used to measure the amylase activity of flours.
Antioxidants Naturally-occuring substances or synthetic chemical compounds which can retard the development of oxidative rancidity in fats and fat-containing foodstuffs. Sugar and lecithin are examples of natural antioxidants, while butylated hydroxy-anisole ( BHA ), butylated hydroxy toluene ( BHT ) and dodecyl gallate are examples of chemical antioxidants.
Antistaling Agents Substances such as sodium stearate, polyoxyethylene monostearate and glyceryl mono stearate ( GMS ), that retard the staling of baked products.
Artificial Sweetener Non-nutritive (contain no nutrients), high-intensity sugar substitutes
Artisan Skilled craftsman or trade; baker who produces bread or bakery goods using production methods that are part hand-made. Often refers to European crusty breads or low-ratio cakes and desserts.
Ascorbic Acid ( Vitamin C ) A naturally occuring vitamin that is used in the baking industry as an improving agent. Its overall effect on the physical properties of dough depend both on its oxidizing and reducing actions.
Ash Content The amount of incombustible residue, left after incinerating a weighed amount of a material and expressed as percentage.
Bake Cooking food in dry heat, especially in an oven.
Bake Test A test designed to show the baking properties of flour when subjected to the parameters of bulk production, and carried out under controlled conditions.
Baker’s % Formula Ingredient weight divided by total flour weight X 100 = bakers% for that ingredient.
Baker’s Percent In baking formulas primarily based on flour, each ingredient’s weight is measured as a percentage of the total flour weight (100 percent).
Baking Loss The loss of mass in a product as a result of baking. In the case of non fermented products, the difference in mass between the dough or batter from the moment when it is put in the oven and when it emerges as a baked product. This includes the loss of fat to the baking sheet or tin.
Baking mix A combination of pre-measured baking dry ingredients (Ex: flours, meal, leavening, sugars, salt, spices).
Baking Powder A balanced mixture of sodium bicarbonate and an acid. Baking powders when moistened and heated produce a leavening gas in batters and doughs. They should leave only tasteless, harmless residues. The acid substances commonly used are tartaric acid, cream of tartar, calcium acidphosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, and sodium aluminium phosphate.
Baking sheet A sheet of metal that is rigid and is used for baking cookies, breads, biscuits, etc. It usually has one or more edges that is turned up for ease in removing from the oven. Types include shiny, heavy-gauge aluminum, the standard used in most test kitchens for even baking and browning.Darkened, heavy-gauge pans will produce especially crisp exterior crusts desired for specialty baked goods. Insulated baking sheets are two sheets of aluminum with air space between, and are especially good for soft cookies or tender-crust breads or rolls. Also, see Cookie sheet, Insulated bakeware, and Jelly roll pan glossary listings.
Baking soda A base, alkaline in nature, formed when sodium carbonate (purified form of mineral trona) is mixed with carbon dioxide and water to form sodium bicarbonate. Baking soda is the source of CO2 gas in leavening systems. It neutralizes acids in the batter, adjusting the final pH of baked goods. Baking soda is not the same as baking powder.
Barbados sugar Also known as muscovado sugar. A British specialty brown sugar; it is very dark brown and has a strong molasses flavor.
Barley flour A low-gluten flour made from hulled barley. It imparts a sweet taste, moisture, and relative lightness to cakes, cookies, and quick breads.
Batch One recipe of a dough or batter, such as bread or cookies.
Batter A thin mixture of flour, water ‘or milk, eggs, or any other permitted ingredients, such as is used for making cakes.
Batter or Dough Other ingredients plus the ratio of liquid to flour help determine if it’s a batter or dough.
Beat Making a smooth mixture by whipping or stirring with a wire whisk, spoon, beater or electric mixer.
Bench The counter or surface bakers use to work with dough.
Bench Time Allowing yeast dough 5 to 15 minutes resting time after fermentation, punching, dividing and before shaping to allow gluten to relax.
Benzoyl Peroxide A chemical powder that is added to flour in small quantities for its beneficial bleaching action.
Bind To thicken or smooth out the consistency of a liquid.
Biscuits A term generally used for that bakery product which is made from a dough which is sheeted, cut and baked immediately there- after to a low moisture.
Bittersweet Chocolate Baking chocolate containing a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor
Bleaching Agent A substance added to flour to bleach out the yellow pigment naturally present in flour and thereby give a whiter appearance to the flour and the bread produced from it.
Blend To mix two or more ingredients together with a spoon, whisk, electric mixer, blender, or processor.
Blending Capacity The ability or capacity of a flour to carry proportion of low quality flour and still produce bread of satisfactory quality.
Braid To weave together three or more long pieces of dough.
Bran The outer layers of a kernel of grain that lie just below the hull. “Miller’s bran” is produced during milling when the bran layers are removed from the grain kernel. About 14.5 percent of whole wheat flour is bran. Bran is used in baked goods and cereals to add dietary fiber and nutrients.
Bread flour Unbleached, wheat flour that is higher in protein (11% or more) for better yeast bread dough development and preferred for use in bread machines. Look for bread flour that is enriched – as indicated on the ingredient label.
Bread-Making The overall process of converting flour into bread which generally consists of different stages like mixing, fermentation, dough make-up, proofing and baking.
Brew A mixture of water, yeast, yeast nutrients and varying amounts of flour used in some bread-making processes.
Brimac Process A bread-making process developed at the Bread Research Institute of Australia which uses mechanical action ( mixing ) to develop the dough to optimum physical state.
Brown To give a cooked surface to a food (such as meat or flour) by applying high heat. Also occurs during baking and roasting.
Brown Sugar Sugar crystals coated in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color.  May be produced by boiling a special molasses syrup until brown sugar crystals form, then centrifuging the crystals until dry.
Brownie A dense, chewy, cake-like cookie that is generally chocolate-flavored and colored (hence the name) and cut in bar shapes to serve.
Buckiness A term used in baking technology to describe doughs that are too soft or too elastic for proper handling.
Buckling A defect which causes the crackers to warp during baking generally resulting in raised centres.
Buckwheat flour A gluten-free flour made by grinding hulled buckwheat seeds. It is not a relative of wheat. Originating in Russia, buckwheat has a distinctive flavor and is used in pancakes and some baked goods, such as multi-grain breads. Russian blini are made with buckwheat flour. Groats and kasha also are produced from buckwheat.
Buffering Value The ability of a substance to maintain the pH of a solution, batter or dough at a constant level.
Bulgur Whole-wheat kernels that have been steamed, dried, and cracked. Bulgur may be soaked or cooked and added to baked goods. Bulgur also may be ground into flour.
Bulk Fermentation For dough under fermentation, this is the period from the mixing stage to the dividing stage.
Butter Butter is produced by churning cream into a semi-solid form. By U.S. standard definition, it is 80 percent milk fat, with the remaining 20 percent consisting of water and milk solids. Butter for baking may be salted or unsalted and is valued by most bakers for its irreplaceable flavor and ability to create flaky layers, crispness, tenderness, carry flavors, and provide golden-brown color.
Cacoa Tropical evergreen tree cultivated for its seed pods from which cocoa powder and cocoa butter are produced.
Cake Flour Fine-textured, silky flour milled from soft wheat, with a low protein content for making cakes, cookies, pastries and some breads.
Calcium Propionate An inorganic salt used in small quantities, in bread to inhibit the growth of moulds and to some extent, rope.
Canning & pickling salt A pure granulated salt, with no additives or free-flowing agents. It may be used the same as table salt in baking recipes. It may cake when exposed to greater than 75 percent relative humidity.
Capping When yeast loaves are under-proofed and the interior pushes up the top crust leaving a rough, sharp edge along the side of the loaf having the appearance of a “cap.”
Caramel A colouring matter ( dark brown colour ) obtained by the action of heat ( 170-180°C ) and ammonia on sugar.
Carbon Dioxide The gas evolved by the action of yeast on fermentable sugars or by the action of baking powder in a baking process. For example, in a fermenting dough, carbon dioxide causes the dough to rise ( leaven ). This is essential for the production of the desirable spongy grain and texture of bread crumb.
Cereal grain Cereal refers to grain and foods derived from them; the word cereal comes from Ceres, a pre-Roman goddess of agriculture. Also see Grain.
Chemical leavening The reaction of a leavening base (such as baking soda) with a leavening acid (such as sodium aluminum sulfate) in the presence of moisture and heat to produce carbon dioxide gas.
Chocolate From the Aztec word xocolatl meaning bitter water. A food derived from the cacao bean being fermented, dried, roasted, ground and processed into cocoa powder and a liquor used to make a variety of chocolate products: Bittersweet, dark, couverture, milk, semisweet, white, unsweetened.
Chorbywood Bread Process Bread-making process developed by the British Baking Industries Research Association, Chorbywood, UK, which uses high-speed mixing for the optimal development of dough, thereby eliminating the need of bulk fermentation.
CO2 Carbon dioxide; the gas released from leavening reactions and fermentation that creates bubbles and space in a batter or dough.
Coarse Refers to the crumb structure of some baked goods.
Coarse Salt Large crystals of salt, such as Kosher, rock salt, some sea salts, pretzel salt
Coat To thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or dry mixture.
Cocoa butter The portion of fat in the cacao bean.
Cocoa powder Unsweetened cocoa powder made from cacao beans that are fermented, dried, roasted, and cracked. The nibs (small pieces) are ground to extract about 75 percent of the cocoa butter – a thick paste which is called chocolate liquor. This is dried and ground to powder.
Composite Flour A flour made by blending varying amounts of non-wheat flour with wheat flour and used for production of baked goods that are traditionally made from wheat flour.
Conditioned Raisins Moistened raisins before mixing into a batter or dough to prevent the raisin from grabbing moisture from the mixture or baked product, making the baked product crumbly. How to condition raisins: Cover raisins in tap water (80º F.) for 5 to 10 minutes; drain off water. Measure raisins needed; place remainder in sealable food container or bag. Store refrigerated. More at www.LoveYourRaisins.com.
Confectioners’ or powdered sugar A granulated sugar that has been crushed into a fine powder. A small amount (about 3 percent) of cornstarch is added to prevent clumping.
Consistancy ( Dough ) The feel or firmness of a dough ( also called viscosity ) as measured by Farniograph or a similar instrument. It signifies the handling properties of a dough.
Continuous Process In relation to bread making, refers to an automatic process that is essentially continuous from the mixing of the dough to the exit of the bread from the oven.
Convection oven A gas or electric oven equipped with a fan that continually circulates the hot oven air around the product. Circulating hot air allows products to bake on several racks at one time.
Conventional Process In relation to bread making, refers to older processes such as the straight dough or the sponge and dough processes involving bulk fermentation.
Cookie A small sweet baked product. It includes items like small fancy cakes, biscuits, pastries, etc.
Cooling To let food stand until it no longer feels warm to thetouch. Baked goods are cooled on wire racks to avoid soggybottom crusts; cool baked goods before wrapping and storing.
Cooling rack A rectangular grid of thick wire with “feet” that raise it above the countertop. They are used to cool cakes, cookies, and other baked goods when they come out of the oven. Products are cooled while in their pan for a short time and after the product is removed from the pan prior to storing or freezing. Yeast breads are removed from the pans and onto the rack as soon as they come out of the oven to prevent a soggy crust.
Corn Flour Flour obtained by milling of the grain of maize.
Corn starch The fine, powdery flour obtained from the endosperm of corn used as a thickener for pie fillings and puddings; in combination with wheat flour in cakes, cookies, pastries, it produces a fine-textured product. Cornstarch may be referred to as cornflour in some recipes. More at www.argostarch.com.
Corn Syrup A sweetner prepared by hydrolysing maize starch by means of either acids or enzymes. It is the ‘commercial liquid glucose’ used in sugar and flour confectionery.
Courverture chocolate Professional quality glossy coating chocolate.
Cream In bakery trade the term ‘cream’ means basically a homogenous mixed preparation of hydrogenated fat or bakery shortening, icing sugar, flavours and permitted food colours with or without other ingredients in small proportions.
Cream of Tartar An acidic salt—potassium hydrogen tartrate (also referred to as tartaric acid); stabilizes beaten egg whites and leavens some baked goods.
Creaming The action of whipping fat in a manner such that it will incorporate minute air bubbles and become light and ‘creamy’ in texture. In bakeries, fat is generally ‘creamed’ with other ingredients such as sugar, which facilitates the creaming process. ‘Creaming Quality’ as applied to fat is the ability to absorb air during mixing.
Crepe The French word for pancake; paper-thin, flexible egg-rich pancakes used to wrap or fold around sweet or savory ingredients as a first or main course.
Crispness Eating quality of biscuits which makes it crunchy to bite; opposite to soggy or soft.
Critical Mixing Speed It is the lowest mixing speed of a dough mixer that can develop a dough in a mechanical development bread – making process.
Crumb Grain The cell structure exhibiting size and shape of bread crumb determined by visual examination.
Crumb Texture The cell structure exhibiting hardness, coarseness and silkiness of bread crumb as determined by feel.
Crush To pulverize, as with herbs and spices used in baking.
Crust The caramelized crisp or chewy outer layer of a baked product that covers the crumb or more tender inside.
Cupping A defect which causes biscuits to warp during baking and the sides to rise. This is the opposite of ‘buckling’.
Cutting Machine A machine used for cutting the dough sheet into specified sizes and shapes for biscuits. It consists of one or more sets of rollers, which sheet out the dough and a cutting section which simultaneously cuts out the biscuits and embosses them with an appropriate design.
Cysteine A naturally~occuring amino ‘acid that contains sulphur. It is used in the baking industry, particularly in chemical development bread-making process, because of its ability to reduce the mixing requirement for optimum dough development. It is, however, not permitted, as yet, under the PFA rules.
Dark chocolate: is also bittersweet, semi-sweet, and sweet dark chocolate; all contain cacao beans, sugar, an emulsifier such as soy lecithin to preserve texture, and flavorings such as vanilla but do not contain milk solids. They are distinguished by the amount of cocoa powder: 30% (sweet dark) to 70%, 75%, or even above 80%, for extremely dark bars.
Degerminated To remove the germ portion of a grain kernel,leaving bran and or endosperm.
Degradation Breakdown of large molecules of any substance into smaller fragments. Here it pertains to the breakdown of starch by amylases or proteins by proteases.
Demera Sugar A light brown sugar with large golden crystals which is slightly sticky from adhering molasses. It is popular in England for tea, coffee, or to top hot cereals.
Denaturation The destruction of the natural properties of proteins by physical or chemical means. An example of denaturation is the cooking of flour proteins in dough to produce the semi-rigid structure of bread – a thermal denaturation of proteins.
Developer Mixer A dough mixer that is used to develop the dough to its optimal physical state for bread-making.
Dextrins Modified starch prepared from starch by heat treatment in the dry state, with or without the addition of small quantities of chemical reagents.
Dextrose Also dextroglucose and known as glucose, this sugar is the chief source of energy in the body. Glucose is chemically considered a simple sugar or monosaccharide and naturally occurs and is derived from plant starches such as corn.
Diastatic Activity In flour quality evaluation, it is the measure of the activity of the starch degrading enzymes of the flour. It can be expressed in terms of the maltose ( sugar ) produced or in terms of tlie peak viscosity in the Amylograph test.
Dilatation of Fats When fats change from solid to liquid at the same temperature, there is an increase in volume. Measurement of this increase is used to estimate the amount of solid fat present in a mixture at any given temperature.
Dissolve Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining. (For example: stirring sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).
Divider A machine used in bread-making to divide a large piece of dough into desired size pieces.
Dock A baking technique in which regularly spaced holes are poked all over the surface of a dough to promote a crisp baked surface (crackers, pet treats, pie shells, all may be docked before baking).
Docking Slashing or making incisions in the surface of bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking. Done just before baking.
Dot To place small dabs or pieces of butter or batter over the surface of a food, such as with a pie, just before the top crust isadded and baking begins.
Dough A mixture of flour and liquids, and may have other ingredients, that is thick enough to be handled, kneaded or shaped.
Dough Development The elaboration of the physical properties of a dough that are the best for the production of bread. This can be achieved by fermentation as in dough ripening or maturing, by mixing as in mechanical development or by a combination of certain chemicals and mixing as in chemical development.
Dough Expansion Test ( Pelshenke ) The time required for a dough ball made from wheat meal, water and yeast and suspended in water at 30°C to disintegrate. It is a rough measure of the quality of wheat protein for bread-making and is used in screening for baking quality in new varieties of wheat during the early generations.
Dough Maturing Agents Chemical substances such as potassium bromate, potassium iodate, ascorbic acid ( Vitamin C ) which when added to dough in small amount improve the handling and bread- making quality of the dough.
Dough scraper, dough or bench knife A flat, heavy metal blade (about 3 X 5-inches) with straight sides, sharp corners and a handle on top edge for moving, kneading, clean-cutting dough, incising, or even cleaning work surfaces.
Dough Tests Tests made on doughs to obtain information on the bread-making quality of the flour or to determine the effects of various added ingredients.
Drain To remove liquid from a food product.
Drop To deposit even portions of dough on a baking sheet using spoon or batter dispenser.
Dry ingredients Refers to the ingredients in a recipe, such as flours, sugar, leavening, salt, baking cocoa, spices, or herbs, that may be blended before adding to another mixture in the recipe.
Dust To lightly sprinkle the surface of a food or dough with sugar, flour or crumbs. Also to sprinkle the surface used for rolling out or shaping dough.
Egg wash A thoroughly combined mixture of 1 whole egg, egg yolk, or egg white mixed with 1 tablespoon cold water or milk. This mixture is brushed on the unbaked surface of breads, pastries, or other baked goods just before baking to provide a rich color or gloss to the crust.
Egg yolk The yellow center portion of a whole egg; an emulsifier contaning lecithin, vitamins, lutein, fat and choline.
Eggs Eggs perform many functions – leavening, binding, thickening, coating or glazing, emulsifying, moisturizing or drying, and adding color, flavor, and nutrients to the finished product. Eggs also may be used to retard crystallization in some frosting.
Elasticity Capable of recovering shape after stretching; developed gluten in dough is elastic.
Electrophoresis A method for separating components of a complex mixture of substances by permitting them to migrate under the influence of an applied electric current. The rate of movement will depend on the charge per unit mass of each component in a mixture.
Emulsify, emulsifier An ingredient such as an egg that, when beaten with two non-mixing ingredients like oil and vinegar, will hold them in a suspension so they do not separate.
Emulsifying Agent A substance that assists in the dispersion and suspension of an oil in water, for example, glycerol monostearate.
Endosperm The starch granules in grain embedded in gluten-forming proteins from which flour or meal is produced; 80-85% of a wheat kernel is endosperm.
Energy Input The energy that is absorbed by a dough during mechanical development by mixing.
Enrich, -ed To improve the nutritional value of an ingredient or food. Baked goods may be enriched by using milk, enriched flour, whole grain flours, eggs, soy protein or flour.
Enzyme A protein that has the ability to speed up a biological reaction without itself undergoing any change, also known as biological catalyst.
Equipment Hand or electrical tools and appliances needed to accomplish a task, craft or job.
Ethyl Vanillin It is a white crystalline synthetic powder, which resembles purevanilla in flavour and it is used as a substitute for it.
Farinograph An instrument that mixes flour and water into a dough and produces a record of the resistance that the dough offers to the mixing blades during the mixing cycle. It also indicates the water absorption power of the flour under test and also the mixing tolerance.
Fat A chemical constituent of plant or animal tissues comprising esters of various fatty acids and glycerol. In cereal technology, it may refer to the natural flour fat or the fat ( shortening ) that is added in the bread formula.
Ferment A mixture of water, yeast, yeast nutrients and occassionally a small amount of flour that is allowed to ferment for several hours prior to being used for the production of bread dough.
Fermentation A process in bread-baking in which yeast enzymes in a dough mixture convert sugars (glucose, fructose and maltose) to bud and grow, creating carbon dioxide that expands the dough and alcohol as a by-product.
Fermentation Tolerance The ability of a dough to retain its desirable properties even after extended formentation periods; an important measure of bread-making quality of flour.
Flaky Distinct layers of pastry or biscuit formed by using low protein flour, fat, and not too much mixing.
Flatbread Breads that are shaped and baked in thin, flat shapes such as pita, naan, focaccia, tortilla, chapati.
Floor Time Short fermentation time allowed in bread-making between the final mixing and dividing.
Flour The finely ground and sifted meal of any of various edible grains. Flour is a major ingredient in most baked goods with wheat flour making up 75 to 100% of the flour in baked goods to produce the desired structure, flavor and volume.
Foam Moist mixture of yeast, water and possibly a pinch of sugar that is actively growing and expanding. Beaten egg whites beginning to hold air, before peaks are forming.
Fold To gently combine two or more ingredients or a delicate mixture into a heavier, thicker one by cutting vertically through the mixture and turning it over by sliding the mixing tool across the bottom of the bowl or pan with each turn. To combine without stirring or deflating a mixture.
Formula The ingredients that are mixed together to form a dough. It is also known as recipe.
Foxy This is a term used when the baked bread comes out dark- red in colour signifying either high maltose in flour or less fermentation.
Fructose Naturally occurring, highly sweet fruit sugar or levulose; also found in honey; sweeter than sucrose.
Fungus A group of micro plants which are generally parasitic in habit. The class includes moulds and mildews which are the cause of spoilage in baked products.
Gas Production The ability of a bread dough to produce carbon dioxide during fermentation. It is used in the assessment of bread- making quality of flour.
Gas Retention The ability of a bread dough to retain the gas ( carbon dioxide ) produced during fermentation. It is used in the assessment of bread-making quality of flour.
Gassing Power Measure of the ability of a bread dough ( including all ingredients ) to produce gas ( carbon dioxide ) that is required for leavening ( rising ). This is also a measure of baking quality of flour.
Gelatine An animal protein, which has the property of swelling in cold water and dissolving in hot water. It is gummy by nature. When hot solutions of gelatine are cooled, they form jellies.
Gelatinizatian The breakdown of the granular structure of starch as by heating a starch slurry or a dough. The starch granules swell and subsequently burst. Gelatinization is important in relation to the development of crumb structure of bread.
Glassine This is a super calendered, smooth, dense, transparent or semi-transparent sheet of paper used as a protective wrapper. The paper is grease resistant and has a high resistance to the passage of air and other vapours.
Gliadin The fraction of wheat flour proteins that can be dissolved in a 70 percent solution of ethyl alcohol. It is also classified as prolamine. It provides elasticity to dough.
Glucose Also dextroglucose and called dextrose; commonly found in grapes, corn starch and honey and is about 30% as sweet as sucrose (sugar).
Gluten The elastic, expandable structure in a dough or batter capable of trapping gas, expanding and when baked becoming part of the structure of baked products. Wheat flour simple proteins (peptides), glutenin and gliadin, combine with water when stirred, mixed and kneaded to align and form gluten’s long elastic structure. Gluten containing grains are wheat, rye, triticale, emmer wheat and barley.
Gluten Swelling Test A test for bread-making quality which determines the volume of gluten swollen in a dilute solution of lactic acid, also known as ‘ Rerliner test’ and is similar to the ‘Sedimentation test’.
Gluten-free Grains or grain-based foods that do not contain gluten or the components of gluten, the peptides glutenin and gliadin.
Glutenin The fraction of wheat flour proteins that is insoluble in water, salt solution, or 70 percent ethyl alcohol solution, but is soluble in dilute alkali. It provides strength to dough.
Glyceryl Monostearate It is used as a ‘fat extender’ and as a ‘bread softener’, as it has excellent emulsifying properties and shows an affinity for both fat and water.
Golden Syrup A partly refined sugar syrup made from partial inversion of sugar ( sucrose ) using acid or enzyme or both. It has a nice golden brown colour and is used in baked goods for its colour forming and flavouring qualities.
Granulation The coarseness or fineness of a powder such as flour or sugar. In baking technology, it pertains to the particle size and size distribution of the flour.
Grease Rub oil, shortening, butter or fat over surface of cooking utensil or on a food. May also use a lecithin based, non-fat cooking spray, unless bake ware does not recommend it.
Greaseproof Paper This is a protective wrapping paper used for wrapping food products and other articles.
Griddle Heavy-weight flat, rimless pan for baking flatbreads   using as little fat as possible; flipping is done halfway through baking; may be electric or held over heat.
Hard Dough Doughs from which semi-sweet biscuits are made. The doughs are fairly firm to the touch.
Hard Wheat Wheat which, as a result of variety of breeding in combination with environmental factors during growth, has a vitreous endosperm, generally considered an advantage for the production of bread-making flours, as the protein content is generally superior in quality and quantity.
Hardened Oils Synonymous with hydrogenated oils.
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) Primarily used in commercial beverages and foods, HFCS is made when corn starch is converted to dextrose-rich syrup; using isomerization, the dextrose-rich corn syrups are further processed to create fructose. The fructose is then blended with dextrose syrup to produce the commercial corn syrups with 42% to 95% fructose.  Fructose is 130 to 180% sweeter than sugar.
Honey A thick, sweet liquid produced by bees from flower nectar. Color and flavor vary due to the nectar the bees find available. Honey develops golden crust color and holds moisture in baked goods.
Hops A leavening agent prepared from hops leaves and popular with small bakers.
Humectant A moistening ingredient; ingredient that promotes retaining moistness in a baked product.
Humidity The amount of moisture in the air; in baking, thepercent humidity needed for proofing or baking bread.
Hydrate To moisten or combine with water or liquids.
Hydration The absorption or uptake of water by solid materials like flour. In bread-making, two aspects of hydration are important. The total amount absorbed ( hydration capacity ) by the flour and the rate at which it is absorbed ( rate of hydration ).
Icing A coat of sugar that is used to dress baked products.
Improving Agent Any substance that is added to flour or to dough to improve its performance during bread-making and to improve the quality of the bread that can be produced from the flour.
Inactivation The destruction of the natural catalytic activity -of the enzyme by chemical or physical means.
Ingredient Any part of a mixture.
Ingredient list Any part of a mixture.
Intermediate Proof  The stage in the bread-making process where the dough is allowed to rest ( relax ) for short period up to 12 minutes between the dividing and moulding. Also referred to as ‘first proof’.
Invert sugar Sugar syrup exposed to a small amount of acid and heating to break sucrose into glucose and fructose to reduce the size of the crystals. Invert sugar is used for fondant icings for cakes.
Iodine Value An indication of the degree of unsatura tion of oils or fats. It is measured as the percentage of iodine that is absorbed by the oil or fat on the basis of its own mass.
Iodized salt Table salt with added sodium iodide to help prevent hypothyroidism in regions low on natural iodine.
Kneading To mix dough using a pressing and folding motion, turning and folding the dough onto itself until gluten strands form and the dough is smooth and elastic.
Knock Back The punching or kneading of the dough during bulk fermentation to expel some of the carbon dioxide and improve subsequent fermentation.
Kosher salt An additive-free, coarse-grained salt, preferred by some bakers and used by Jewish Kosher butchers and food processors; also called coarse salt.
Kraft A term used for strong papers primarily used for wrapping, manufactured from long-fibred raw material and pulped by sulphite process.
Lactic Acid The organic acid formed by Lactobacilli fermentation, for example, when milk sours. It is also produced during dough fermentation and is considered to be important in bread flavour.
Lactose Milk sugar; the sugar naturally occurring in milk.
Lean dough A dough prepared with little or no fat, sugar, or milk.
Leavening Ingredients used in baked goods to lighten the texture, develop flavor, produce distinctive cell structure and increase volume. Leavening agents include heat and moisture (steam), beaten eggs or egg whites, baking soda, baking powder, cream of tartar, and yeast. Historical terms for leavening: Latin = levre = to raise; also called “lifter.”
Leavening Agent Any substance such as yeast or sodium bicarbonate, used to raise or leaven dough by producing carbon dioxide.
Lecithin Belongs to the class of substances known as lipoids, which are combinations of fat with nitrogen-containing substances and phosphorous. It is normally extracted from soyabean. It is also present in egg yolk. It acts as an emulsifier and is close to fat in chemical composition.
Lifter An old-fashioned term for the leavening or “lifter” in a batter or dough.
Liquid A source of water, fluid or moisture in a batter, dough or mixture.
Loaf A portion of bread dough baked in one piece or form
Low fat 3 grams of fat or less per serving or reference amount.
Low Sodium Indicates food will be 140 mg or less per serving.
Make-up After fermentation(s), shaping the dough into loaves or other shapes. Includes scaling (dividing), rounding, intermediate proof, molding and panning the dough pieces.
Malted Cereal Flour Flour produced by grinding malted ( sprouted or germinated and dried ) wheat and barley and used as an adjunct to bread flour to improve its gassing power.
Maltose A disaccharide sugar obtained by the action of amylases on starch. It comprises two glucose units and is the main fermentable sugar in dough.
Maltose Value An index of diastatic activity of flour. It is measured as the number of milligrams of maltose produced from 10 g of flour under standardized conditions.
Margarine Developed as a butter substitute in the late 1800s, margarine is 80 percent vegetable oil that is partially hydrogenated to hold a solid form. The remaining 20 percent is liquids, flavoring, coloring, and other additives. Margarine may be salted or unsalted.
Marshmallow cream A sweet, light, fluffy, fat-free marshmallow-flavored mixture used as an ingredient in candy, pie, dip and dessert recipes providing creamy texture and marshmallow flavor.
Mash To break up into finer, smoother pieces by pressing with back of a spoon, a masher or ricer.
Maturing Agent Any substance, usually a chemical ( for example potassium bromate ), that is added to flour or dough to improve the bread-making quality of the flour.
Mechanical Development Baking Method A baking method which uses vigorous mixing instead of a long fermentation period for the development of a dough with the optimum handling characteristics.
Melt Heating a solid food such as butter or sugar until it is liquid.
Melting point The temperature at which a fat or chocolate will begin changing from a solid to a liquid state.
Meringue Stiffly beaten egg white and granulated sugar that may be soft or baked hard. Sugar must be beaten into the egg whites one tablespoon at a time to dissolve and produce a smooth meringue.
Milk chocolate Sweetened dark chocolate (at least 10 percent chocolate liquor) with additional milk solids (at least 12 percent).
Mineral A solid substance formed in the earth that is not animal or vegetable (Ex: salt, iron)
Mixing With yeast dough, refers to four stages—pick-up period, preliminary development, elasticity development, and final gluten development. Stirring until the ingredients are well-combined (no individual ingredients can be seen or identified).
Mixing Time Time required to mix a dough to a proper consistency for bread-making.
Mixing Tolerance The ability of a dough to withstand extended mixing without showing major changes in physical properties.
Mixograph An instrument used for evaluating the dough mixing properties of wheat flour as a part of bread-making quality evaluation. It measures and records the resistance that the dough offers to the pins of the mixer while the dough is mixed.
Moisten To make moist by adding, brushing or sprinkling with a liquid.
Mold A fuzzy growth of fungus on a bread, vegetables, fruit or damp surface; indicates decay or spoilage.
Molding Follows intermediate proof—dough must be relaxed—final shaping step where dough is flattened (sheeted) or shaped for loaves, braids, rolls, twists.
Monocalcium Phosphate A chemical substance added to dough as a yeast nutrient. The main nutrients provided by this substance are calcium and phosphorous.
Muffin Small, cake-like sweet or savory leavened breads.
Muffin mixing method Use of two bowls, mixing fluid ingredients and dry ingredients separately; stirring to combine is done very quickly and with as few stirs as possible to prevent gluten formation.
Nibs Cocoa nibs are simply roasted cocoa beans separated from their husks and broken in to small bits; may be used in cookies or as a topping in place of nuts.
Nut flour Nut meats, toasted or untoasted, that are finely ground for pastry crusts, breads, cakes, and cookies.
Nutrition Facts A box on the food label offering serving size and basic nutrition information for a food ingredient, recipe or product.
Nuts The dry fruit of trees, legumes, or seeds; an edible kernel encased in a hard, dry shell. Rich in nutrients, flavor, and texture, nuts provide sensory appeal to baked goods and other menu items. Nuts may be as high as 90 percent fat, but the fat is primarily the healthful, monounsaturated type.
Oils The liquid fat pressed from plants and their nuts or seeds. The oil is extracted either by solvent-extraction or cold-pressed. Common types used in home baking are soybean, safflower, corn, sunflower, canola, and olive oils. No oil derived from a plant contains cholesterol, but they will vary in amounts of poly- and mono-unsaturates and saturated fat.
Old dough Yeast dough that is overproofed; dough may have tripled in volume and fallen.
Oven An oven may be defined as an enclosed area with parts which supply heat and air flow in order to cook food.
Oven proofing Allowing dough to proof beyond a full doubling of size; if dough actually proofs and falls again, the product will not recover. Product will be very open grained, have a crumbly texture, undesirable flavor, pale crust, strong aroma and poor keeping quality.
Oven Spring Increase in the volume of the dough during baking. This is equal to the volume of the baked loaf minus volume of the dough when put in the oven.
Oxidation One of the ways by which the handling properties of dough can be improved so as to improve the quality of bread. It is brought about by substances referred to as oxidants, improvers or maturing agents.
Pancake One of humans’ oldest bread forms, hundreds of types are shared cultures; batter may be thick or thin, and is baked on a very hot surface for breakfast, lunch, dinner or a snack. (Ex: crepes, blinis, hotcakes, flapjacks).
Panning The stage in the bread-making process when the moulded dough piece is placed in the baking pan or tins.
Parchment paper Sheets of grease and moisture resistant paper used in baking to line pans; replaces greasing or spraying pans. Products are shaped or distributed directly on the paper and are easily removed after baking. Great for making disposable pastry bags too.
Patent Flour The portion of a straight-run flour, better in colour and with a lower ash content than the remainder of the flour. The first processes used to make such flour were patented and hence the name.
Pekar Test A test of flour quality made by comparing the colour of a flour against a standard sample. Each sample is placed side by side on a flat rectangular piece of wood, pressed down to a smooth surface and compared with the standard.
Physical Dough Test Wheat quality tests that are based on a measurement of some physical properties ( for example elasticity, viscosity, resistance to extension ) of a dough produced by mixing flour and water and other ingredients as required.
Pie A sweet or savory dish made with one or two crusts and filling (pudding, fruit, meat or vegetables).
Plane Sifter A sifting machine consisting of a number of super-imposed sieves gyrating together in a horizontal plane, having a rotary motion.
Pliable Easily bent or moulded, flexible. It pertains to dough that can be readily moulded into loaf-size piece.
Pneumatic Conveying The transporting of material in enclosed tubes using air under negative or positive pressure as the conveying medium.
Porous May refer to the honeycomb-like structure of white pan bread.
Portion (v.) to evenly divide batter or dough to place on prepared baking pans; n: the amount a person is served.
Potassium Bromate A chemical substance ( salt ) comprising of potassium, bromine and oxygen  that is used in the baking industry as a dough maturing agent ( improver ). It is a slow improver.
Potassium Iodate A chemical substance comprising of potassium, iodine and oxygen ( KI03 ) that is used in the baking industry as a dough maturing agent ( improver ). It is comparatively a fast improver.
Preheat Heating the empty oven to the recommended temperature before placing the product to be baked init.
Proofing The stage in the bread-making process when the dough is allowed to rise under the action of carbon dioxide produced by fermentation.
Protease An enzyme ( biological catalyst ) that brings about a breakdown of proteins. In the baking industry, this enzyme from cereal or fungal sources is used to improve the handling properties of dough.
Protein One of the chief constituents of plant and animal tissues containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and frequently sulphur. In wheat, protein is important for baking and nutritional qualities.
Pumpernickel A medium- to coarsely ground, rye flour, light brown in color. It may be labeled “medium rye.” A mixture of rye and wheat flour used to produce a distinctive bread. Molasses are usually used to add color and flavor.
Quinoa flour A gluten-free flour made from grinding quinoa grain. It is highly nutritious and yields a tender, moist crumb in cookies, pancakes, waffles, and fruitcakes.
Rancid Having the bad smell or taste of spoiled (oxidized) fats or oils; nuts may also be rancid; rancid fats are a carcinogen and should not be consumed.
Raw Sugar About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice.
Reduced sodium A food has reduced the sodium content by 25%; there is 25% less sodium per serving than the original food.
Reducing Agent A chemical substance that is capable of adding hydrogen or removing oxygen from another substance, hence reducing it. Also, in some instances it is capable of splitting chemical bonds. In baking, it usually refers to agents, for example cysteine that can break ( cleave ) the disulfide bonds in flour proteins. In chemical or mechanical development of doughs, it helps in reducing the mixing time.
Rest time After kneading, punching or rounding, dough benefits from a brief (10 to 30 minutes) intermission in handling. The dough will be more easily rolled or shaped. Keep dough covered with bowl or plastic food wrap sprayed with pan spray while it rests so “skin” doesn’t form. Yeast dough: called an intermediate proof.
Ripening The development of proper physical properties of doughs that are required for bread-making during fermentation.
Rope A bacterial infection occuring in bread during periods of hot wheather. First sign of a rope is a sour ‘Fruity’ odour followed by a stickiness in the crumb and darkening of crumb colour usually in patches. Rope can become evident within 24 hours after baking. This can be controlled by high standards of cleanliness and by use of suitable antibacterial agents.
Ropy Bread Bread in which certain spore-forming bacteria ( mostly Bacillus subtilis and related species ) have developed during storage, with the effect that the bread produces a characteristic smell and shows in its interior characteristic signs of decay; these may include the conversion of the crumb into a moist, sticky substance, leaving slimy thrc ads when extended.
Rotary Moulding Machine A biscuit forming machine in which an engraved roller is used to form the biscuit.
Rounding Shaping dough so that a smooth surface encases the dough, sealing it as it rests.
Rye Bread Bread made of coarse or not too fine meal milled from rye, with no intentional addition of any other cereal.
Rye flour Milled from rye grain, the flour is darker, heavier, and low in gluten. It is sold as light, dark, or medium for home baking. The light and medium rye flour have most of the bran removed. Dark rye flour is whole grain.
Salinity (Sodium Chloride – NaCl) can be produced three ways: Open-air evaporation of salt brine in shallow ponds (sea salt). By mining of rock salt deposits. By boiling and evaporation of higher purity brine. Salt contributes to flavor in baked goods, and controls fermentation of yeast in breads. Coarse grades are available for use as toppings on soft pretzels and other specialty breads.
Salt The level of saltiness in a food, water or product.
Salt substitute Usually potassium chloride in granular form, intended for lowering sodium intake; generally bitter in taste. It is not recommended for baking.
Saturated fats Fats that are solid enough at room temperature (70° F.) to hold their shape; usually animal fats, though palm or coconut oil are also included.
Scone A Scottish biscuit-like bread made with oats, flour, butter and leavened with baking powder; savory or sweet and frequently served with breakfast or tea.
Scratch baking Baking method that begins with measuring basic ingredients such as flour, sugar, butter and leavening. It requires a recipe rather than convenience products, like mixes.
Sealing Pinching the edges of dough that are brought together; securing or closing two sides of dough, packaging or product edges.
Seize Refers to melting chocolate that becomes a thick, lumpy mass due to even a small amount of steam or moisture getting into the melting chocolate. Chocolate may be unseized (although texture is still affected) by stirring in 1 tablespoon or less of vegetable oil, cocoa butter or clarified butter per 6 oz. Of chocolate until smooth.
Semi-sweet chocolate: Baking chocolate that contains between 15 percent and 35 percent chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. It may be used interchangeablyin some recipes that call for bittersweet or sweet chocolate, but is not interchangeable with milk chocolate.
Shaping or molding Follow recipe directions for how to divide and shape dough (sheet dough, sticks, loaves, twist, braid, pretzel, smooth ball, etc.)
Sheet cake A type of flat cake baked in a sheet pan, frosted and cut-into squares or triangles.
Shortenig A fat used to impart crispness and flakiness to biscuits, and softness to bread crumbs.
Shred To rub large food across medium to large grater holes or slits to make small pieces.
Sifting The process of passing pulverised substance through fine perforated screens or meshes in order either to remove large impurities or to properly blend a mixture of powders or to grade a substance according to particle size.
Slack dough Dough that is too fluid due to underdevelopment or too much water/too little flour.
Slashing Also called “docking;” making incisions in the surface of bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking. Done just before baking.
Slip Point The temperature at which a solid fat melts into a liquid.
Sodium Bicarbonate ( NaHC03 ) A white powder much used as a chemical leavening agent. It releases only part of its carbon dioxide gas on heating. Reaction with an acid substance releases all the available carbon dioxide. It is an essential constituent of baking powders.
Sodium Diacetate A chemical added to dough to prevent or slow down the development of mould in bread.
Sodium Propionate A chemical added to dough to prevent or slow down the development of mould in bread.
Soft wheat Refers to soft red winter wheat, soft red spring wheat, and soft white wheat; “soft” wheat will contain lower protein or gluten strength making it especially suited for pastries, cookies, cakes, flat breads, quick breads and more.
Solid Fat Index A property of a mixed fat that relates to the proportion of solid fat in the mixture.
Sour dough Bread with a slightly sour tangy flavor created by using sour dough starter (levain)—a batter or dough that has colonies of sour dough yeasts and bacteria (microflora).
Sponge and Dough Process A bread-making process that uses two stages to prepare the dough. In the first stage the sponge is made of 50 to 75 percent of flour, 35 to 50 percent of water, part of sugar and yeast nutrients and is allowed to ferment for 3 to 4& hours. In the second stage, the fermented sponge is placed in the mixer and the remaining ingredients added and the final dough is mixed. This is called the dough stage.
Spread The amount a dough or batter flattens out on a baking pan before the oven heat sets the proteins and starch;
Sprinkle Scattering particles of sugar or toppings over a surface, like frosting, cake or bread.
Staling The complex changes that occur inbread during storage after baking that lead to loss of freshness or hardening to the point where the bread loses it edible quality.
Starch 70 to 75% of flour is starch. During milling a small portion are damaged. Quality wheat and short extraction flour contain fine quality starch granules and protein important in mixing, dough conditioning water absorption, fermentation and quality crumb formation.
Starch Damage Disruption of the natural structure of the starch granules by biochemical ( amylases ), chemical ( alkali ) or physical ( grinding or milling ) measures.
Steoryl-2-Lactylate A fat-like substance that is added to dough to improve its handling properties and thereby improve the quality  of the bread. These are either sodium ( SSL ) or calcium ( CSL ) lactyiates.
Stevia Also known as sweetleaf; a naturally occurring sweetener native to Central and South America; 400 times sweeter than sugar.
Straight Run Flour A grade of flour produced by combining together all the basic flour streams made in a mill.
Straight-Dough Process A bread-making process in which the dough is made by a single mixing of all the ingredients.
Strength of Flour The capacity of a flour to produce well leavened loaves of large bold volume, which is a desirable characteristic of bread-making flour.
Strong Flour A flour that takes up a relatively large quantity of water and produces a dough that requires a relatively long mixing for proper development. Usually a flour of high quality for bread-making, but unsuitable for biscuit and cake manufacture.
Sucrose A crystalline, water soluble sugar naturally occurring in sugar cane, sugar beets, and sorghum; widely used in baking, sucrose is sweeter than glucose and not as sweet as fructose.
Sugar Sugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate occurring naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sun’s energy into food. Sugar for home baking is produced in greatest quantities from sugar cane and sugar beets
Supplement An additive added to flour or dough to improve the processing, edible or nutritional qualities.
Swift Test Also known as ‘Aeration Test’ and is an indication of the suitability of the fat.
Texture Indicates the appearance of a cut portion of bread or cake.
Thicken Make a liquid dense by adding an ingredient like cornstarch, egg yolk, tapioca, flour, rice or potato starch or flour; also to bind.
Unbleached flour Young dough; dough not allowed to raise enough before baking.
Underproofed dough Shaped bread or rolls which have not reached the desired height or volume before they are baked.
Underproofed loaves or rolls A word to describe breads, cakes, or other baked goods that do not use a leavening agent, such as baking powder, baking soda, yeast, or cream of tartar.
Unleavened Flour that is bleached naturally as it ages; no maturing agents are used in the milling process. It may be used interchangeably with bleached flours and has no nutritive differences.
Unsaturated fats Refers to vegetable oils that are fluid at room temperature or the fats in plant-based foods such as nuts, seeds, avocados, olives.
Unsweetened chocolate Dark baking chocolate containing no sugar or milk solids.
Value added Ingredients that when included in or added to a product will increase the nutritional, market or consumer value of a baked good.
Viscosity Test A test based on the determination of the viscosity ( thickness, consistency, resistance to flour) of a mixture or a solution of a substance and water. In flour testing, sometimes used as a measure of baking quality.
Votator A heat exchanger in which it is possible to effect simultaneously all the physical treatment necessary to produce high grade smooth shortenings and margarine in a continuous operation.
Water Very hard water and soft water create problems for baked goods. Tap water of medium hardness and without noticeable chlorination or other off odors is suitable.
Weak Flour A flour that takes up a relatively small quantity of water and produces a dough that requires a relatively short mixing for development. Usually a flour of low quality for bread-making, but preferable for biscuits and cake making.
Wheat Bread Bread made of flour or meal milled from wheat, with no intentional addition of another cereal.
Wheat flour Flour milled from soft (lower protein) red or white wheat for cakes, pastries, waffles, and other products, or hard white or red wheat for pizza crust, yeast breads, bagels, and some rolls or hearth breads. High-protein durum wheat will be used for flour or semolina for some specialty breads, but is primarily a pasta wheat. Home baking (called “family flour” in the milling industry) wheat flour may be: Unbleached or bleached all-purpose, cake, pastry, whole wheat, stone-ground or graham, ultra-grain and bread flour.
White chocolate A mixture of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin, and vanilla. If cocoa butter is not mentioned, the product is confectionary or summer coating, not white chocolate. It is not a true chocolate due to no chocolate liquor present. Chips or pieces and coating chunks are popular home baking ingredients.
Whole grain Whole grain Using whole kernel or ground whole kernels of a grain (barley, corn, oats, wheat, soy, rye) in a food at 51% or more of the flour weight. There must be more flour than sugar and fat for the food to be a“grain food” product. 16 grams of whole grain flour or meal per serving is 1/3 of the daily need for whole grain in a diet. Learn more: www.wholegrainscouncil.org or www.bellinstitute.com.
Yeast Any of the family of fungi that can grow in presence of starch or sugar to produce carbon dioxide ( and alcohol ); used as a leavening agent in bread. It is used in baking industry in compressed form ( fresh ) or dry powdered form. ( granules )
Yeast Nutrient Inorganic substances required for proper yeast activity ( for example, nitrogen and phosphorous ).
Yield The amount of product obtained as a result of a given amount of ingredients.
Zest