In all cases at least two recipes have been given. The first is a standard proven recipe used in the industry, which can be developed to meet particular requirements in taste or texture for the target market. The second recipe is an actual recipe from a leading producer for a leading product brand.
Following each recipe some notes have been added to identify any particularly important ingredients for the product.
The process descriptions are based on the best practice for producing a high quality product. The process may be modified to suit the equipment available. For each product, recommendations are made with regard to the type of equipment required for the mixing process, baking, in particular the power required and the recommended baking band. Modifications to the recipes and process recommendations may be required to suit the equipment available.
Some notes are given under this section of the report to identify the most important and special ingredients required.
This section lists the key features of the production machinery to achieve the optimum product quality and output. In some cases the specifications may vary from the actual equipment available. In these cases, discussions and development work during the trials will need to be carried out to achieve the best possible product quality.
Very light and delicate texture snack crackers with vegetable flakes and oil sprayed to give an aromatic flavour. These crackers are usually modified with proteolytic enzyme and aerated with ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate.
Dimensions: 48 x 48mm
Thickness: 4.4 mm
Weight: 3.75 g
Appearance: Evenly blistered
Colour: Golden with vegetable flakes
Texture: Light and delicate with soft mouth-feel
Flavour: Aromatic flavour
Oven cutting machine width 1250 mm
No. of crackers across the band: 21
Baking time: 5.0 mins
Biscuits per min. 21 x 965 = 20265/5 = 4053
Kg per hour: 4053 x 60 x 3.75/1000 = 912
Output at 90% efficiency: 820 kg/hr
Baking time: 4.0 min
Biscuits per min. 21 x 965 = 20265/4 = 5066
Kg per hour: 5066 x 60 x 3.75/1000 = 1140
Output at 90% efficiency: 1025kg/hr
|Vegetable cracker (1)||Ingredient nutritional values in mix (1)|
|Recipe||Weight (kgs)||Moisture content and loss during baking %||Dry weight||Carbohydrate||Protein||Fat||Energy kcal|
|Total weight of mix||148.16|
|Total dry weight||105.48|
|Final moisture content||3.0|
|Yield of biscuits||108.74|
|Nutritional values of vegetable crackers per 100gm|
|(1) calculated from table of McCance and Widdowson 1991|
Savoury crackers are mixed on horizontal mixers and the dough is stood to allow the action of the protoelytic enzyme on the gluten. Forming is by sheeting and cutting. Baking is on a Z47 type wire-mesh band. The crackers are oil sprayed immediately after baking.
|with enzyme||with SMS|
|Invert syrup 70%||1.04||16.0|
|Malt extract 80%||2.08||–|
|Acid calcium phosphate||0.05||–|
|Dehydrated vegetable flakes||2.00||2.00|
Similar products can be made using SMS (sodium metabisulphite) in place of the proteolytic enzyme. The SMS increases the extensibility of the gluten and does not require the 3 hour standing time.
An “all in” mix on a horizontal mixer
Temperature of final mix about 33°C for enzyme doughs
Temperature of final mix about 40°C for SMS doughs.
The vegetable flakes may be mixed into the dough.
After mixing the dough is stood to allow the enzyme to react with the gluten. The standing time is about 3 hours at 35°C. The time must be determined carefully depending on the amount of enzyme and the quality of the flour in order to achieve the soft, delicate eating texture of the cracker.
Doughs made with SMS do not require a standing time.
The dough is sheeted, gauged and cut, (laminating is not required).
Typical roll gap settings are:
Gauge roll 1: 6
Gauge roll 2: 3
Gauge roll 3: 1.5
If the vegetable flakes are to be sprinkled, a suitable sprinkler unit before the final gauge roll is required.
Baking time: 4.0 – 5.0 mins.
Temperatures: 220 / 220 / 210 / 180
High bottom heat in Zones 1 and 2 is required
Z47 type wire-mesh band
Pre-heat is required
The oil spray should be located immediately after the oven. An application of 10 – 16% by weight of coconut oil is recommended.
Horizontal 2 speed (30/60 rpm) or variable speed mixer
75 KW motor
Direct gas Fired Oven
Z47 type wire-mesh band
Average oven burner rating 28 KW/m2
Baking temperatures: 220 / 220 / 220 /180°C
Baking time: 4.0 – 5.0 minutes
The flour shall be milled from good quality soft wheat, free from infestation and impurities, especially pesticides. The flour shall not be treated with enzymes and shall not contain chemical additives. The appearance shall be a good white colour, free from bran particles. The odour shall be free from mustiness and foreign odours.
Two flours are required, described in the recipes as strong and weak. An analysis of each is given below.
|Weak flour||Strong flour|
|Semi-sweet doughs||Fermented doughs|
|Proteins (gluten forming)||7.0||10.0|
|Ash (mineral salts)||0.5||0.5|
The sugar shall be free from impurities and infestation. The appearance shall be a fine, white crystalline solid, free flowing and free from lumps.
The sugar shall have a sweet taste and be free from odours.
Moisture content: 0.06% maximum
Ash content: 0.03% maximum
Caster sugar: MA = 276 to 300 um CV = 16 to 26%
Icing sugar: Maximum held on a 100 um sieve 6%
Maximum held on a 60um sieve 13%
Tricalcium phosphate may be added to 1.5% max.
MA Mean aperture
CV Coefficient of Variation
Syrups with 80% solids derived from the refining of cane sugar. Used for their excellent flavour.
Syrup of 70% solids made by acid hydrolysis of sucrose. The result is a 50:50 mixture of dextrose and fructose which are both reducing sugars and contribute to the maillard reaction in baking.
A thick glutinous syrup of 80% solids usually non-diastatic and obtained by water extraction of malted wheat or barley. The heat treatment used to concentrate the solution destroys any enzymes. Used as an important flavour ingredient. Rich in maltose, which is a reducing sugar.
The fat shall be free from impurities and appear clean and bright when melted. The fat should be odourless, free from rancid and foreign flavours. The fat should be produced from good quality crude oils by a process of refining, bleaching and deodorising. It should be made primarily from vegetable oils, but it may contain hydrogenated fish oils.
Free fatty acid (as oleic acid) maximum 0.08 %
Peroxide value (milli equivalent per kg) maximum 1.0
Moisture maximum 0.1%
Slip melting point (BS 684 1.3 1976) 34 to 37°C.
For use in oil spray.
Hydrogenated coconut oil, neutralised, deodorised and bleached.
Melting point: 32 to 34°C
A complex natural surfactant obtained from soya beans
A volatile salt, which, when heated liberates carbon dioxide, ammonia gas and water.
Ammonium bicarbonate 99.0%
Heavy lead 0 10ppm
Arsenic 0 1ppm
Basic magnesium carbonate 0.5 1.0
The most important aerating agent. When heated it liberates carbon dioxide and water, leaving sodium carbonate as the residual salt. Sodium carbonate has a softening action on gluten and darkens the biscuit.If sodium bicarbonate is heated, only half the carbon dioxide is released, but if an acid is present all the carbon dioxide is released and there is no softening action on the gluten or darkening of the colour of the biscuit.
Acid calcium phosphate is also known as monocalcium phosphate. It is fairly soluble in cold water, but for doughs which are used without standing, a good proportion of the reaction takes place during baking. It is used in conjunction with sodium bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate.
Sodium chloride, used as a flavour enhancer and also to control the rate and extent of fermentation.
A reducing agent for the modification of the strength of the gluten in doughs
Used to soften the gluten in doughs. A white, fine powder.
Hopper with scrap incorporation
3 roll sheeter
Dough sheet conveyor
Two gauge roll units with cartridge conveyors
Dough sheet layering unit with cut sheet facility
inclined conveyor to feed first gauge roll unit
The following is a checklist of the important quality control requirements. Most of these will be standard for all the products made in the factory.
Gluten content (Kjedahl)
Detection of flour treatment
Fats and Oils
Kreis test for rancidity
Slip melting point
Feeding sequence and timing
Dough sheet thickness (after sheeting and gauge rolls)
Dough piece weights (across the band and with time)
Dough piece dimensions
Dough piece form
Oil weight (across the band and with time)
Number of biscuits in pack
Pack weights (minimum / average / maximum)
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