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Process manual for cookies

Chocolate chip cookies, butter cookies, two dough cookies, centre filled cookies, fig bars, fruit bars, extruded cookies, cookies with many types of inclusion such as nuts, raisins, coconut and chocolate chips.

• very soft doughs which are deposited directly onto the oven band

• high fat and sugar recipes

• long baking times with relatively low baking temperatures

• all products are baked on steel bands

• high humidity is required in the first oven zones to allow the dough to spread on the oven band

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PROCESS FOR A CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIE

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Description: Short cookies with inclusions of chocolate chips or nuts

Product specification: 

Dimensions:                           55 mm diam.
Thickness:                              12.0 mm
Weight:                                    15.0 g
Appearance:                           Round, irregular shape with chips visible
Colour:                                    Golden brown
Texture:                                  Short
Flavour:                                  Rich with chocolate or nut flavour
Moisture:                                2.5 – 3.0%

Formulation

Flour                                       100.00
Shortening                               55.98
Granulated sugar                    50.05
Brown sugar                               0.76
Whole egg powder                    1.24
Vanillin                                       0.10
Invert syrup                                1.24
Salt                                               0.96
Ammonium bicarbonate         0.29
Sodium bicarbonate                 0.67
Chocolate chips                       30.00
Water                                         19.14

Mixing 
The mixing is in two stages on a horizontal or a vertical mixer. Good dispersion of the fat over the flour particles is important and there must be a good proportion of solid fat. The following ingredients are mixed gently at the first stage: shortening, sugars, water, salt, egg powder, vanilla, invert syrup and ammonium bicarbonate.

These ingredients are mixed to dissolve the sugar and achieve a creamy emulsion. The water should be cold and the mix kept as cool as possible. The flour and sodium bicarbonate are added for the second stage.

The mixing is continued at low speed for no more than one minute to obtain a homogenous mixture without hydration of the flour and formation of the gluten. The chocolate chips or nuts are added close to the end of the mix and given enough time to disperse evenly through the dough.

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Single Sigma Arm Mixer from Peerless Food Equipment for cookie and biscuit doughs

Forming

Baker Perkins wire-cut machine

Baker Perkins wire-cut machine

The dough is fed to the hopper of a wire-cut machine. The dough may be fed from a bowl by gravity. The feed rolls of the depositor operate continuously and will extrude the dough through the dies. As the dough is extruded, it is cut by a horizontally reciprocating wire. The cut dough pieces drop directly on to the baking tray or oven baking band.

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Dough pieces being cut and deposited on to the oven band

Baking

Baking by infrared radiation 
Cookies require slow gentle radiant heat to develop optimum texture, volume and flavour. In addition heat is transferred rapidly by conduction from the steel band enabling the cookie to spread to its final size in the first zones of the oven.

The heating system of the Indirect Radiant oven is essentially a closed system and the energy required from the burner is only sufficient to maintain the baking temperature in each zone.

The burners draw in combustion air and this is exhausted through a natural convective flue. This hot air may be used in a heat recovery system ensuring high fuel efficiency.

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Baking time:                7.0 minutes

Temperatures:            180 – 220oC

Moisture:                      2.5 – 3.0%

Cooling 
A ratio of cooling to baking time should be 1:1.5

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