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Mixing in Biscuit and Cookie Production

Mixing in Biscuit and Cookie Production

Every biscuit or cookie requires the right ingredients that are perfectly mixed in order to produce the desired end product. There are various primary stages to making cookies and biscuits in a factory.


The first stage is the mixing stage. Mixing is an integral part of biscuit and cookie production. This is because mixing is the first of various major production steps during which all ingredients are blended perfectly, thereby allowing the baker to produce the perfect cookie or biscuit.


During the mixing stage, flour, sugar, fat, water and other ingredients are mixed together in the right quantities. This mix is then fed into large mixers to form the dough. It is important to carefully manage the dough temperature and mixing time such that you achieve uniform distribution of the ingredients, as well as the appropriate consistency of the dough. Depending on factors such as the characteristics of the flour, the mixing time could take about 15 minutes. Biscuits and cookies generally differ from other baked products such as bread. This is because cookies and biscuits typically have a lower moisture content which is crucial to maintain during the mixing process. It is for this reason that overall control of the entire mixing process is vital.

Many biscuit and cookie production plants employ a continuous mixing system which provides the baker with front-end control of the entire mixing process. In this way, the baker is able to automatically meter the ingredients and continuously produce dough, thereby ensuring that all the dough is processed at the same age. What this means is that no single batch of dough will be left sitting longer than the others. Upon completion of the mixing of a batch of dough, the dough is normally ejected from the mixer and is immediately placed into either a trough or tub, or even directly fed into a feed hopper.

Through continuous mixing, the baker is able to achieve a uniform and consistent dough stream to the production line, at a similar rate to that which is being used. Such a mixing process eliminates problems that may arise due to batch cycles, while producing a consistent product all day, every day. The results of the mixing process can thereafter be fine-tuned and repeated on a day to day basis, while monitoring the history of production. This history is then saved electronically such that the manufacturing data from the past can be examined and reviewed.

>Dough Mixing as Important Part of Production Process

Types of Machines Used in the Process

Dough Mixer – The dough mixer is utilized for the mixing of various ingredients used in the production of biscuits and cookies. These ingredients include flour, fat, sugar, water and other chemicals used in forming soft, hard or fermented dough that is then used to make the cookies and biscuits. The Dough Mixer comes in a design with a base plate over which two side frames are fitted for receiving the load of the bread dough mixer.

Inside the mixing chamber, there are typically two mixing blades that are fitted which rotate in opposite directions at varying speeds. This process allows the dough mixer to mix different types of hard or soft dough, thereby achieving the right dough consistency. There is also an electric-powered tilting device which is used to tilt the mixing chamber such that you are able to unload the mixing dough. The dough mixer is covered on all sides to prevent the occurrence of accidents as well as the penetration of dust.

The capacity of the dough mixers range anywhere from flour measuring 100kg, 200kg or 300kg for every batch. Standard models of dough mixers are typically made out of mile sheet or cast iron with a top lid. For leakage protection, the mixing bowl is shielded by double oil seals and a gland rope in all the blade shafts. This helps to prevent liquid leakage from the mixing chamber. Each dough mixer is able to produce dough consistently, along with high production yields.

There are also specialized mixing elements that are designed to gently mix gourmet biscuits and cookies with big inclusions such as nuts and chocolate chips which will not end up breaking up during mixing. Mixers typically have programmable variable-speed drives from very low to very high RPM. These enable the bakers to gently fold in large inclusions without them breaking apart. High speed, multi-purpose batch dough mixers offer thorough mixing as they are fitted with a shaftless blade design which allows for good dispersion, as well as rapid dough development.

Continuous mixing is beneficial to cookie and biscuit production as it simplifies the mixing process, while consistently dispersing ingredients. It also simplifies the dough feed equipment and provides the baker with tight control over the entire mixing process. This is also a much safer and sanitary option for mixing dough that is easy to clean, maintain and sanitize.

The baker also doesn’t have to worry about contaminating the dough as the dough will never be exposed to the outside environment while inside the mixer. With the user friendly controls, dough mixers are generally easy to operate. They also control the metering of the ingredients to the mixer, such that this process becomes uninterrupted and precise. Today, there are a wide range of specialized dough mixers available on the market. These mixers are designed to successfully form different types of dough.

Mixers can produce low absorption dough products such as cookies. There are also mixtures that specialize in the production of low development dough which would require multiple mixing stages such as cookies. Such a mixer would typically feature a multistage mixing design which allows for the automation of the crème-up stage in conjunction with the mixing of the dough.

>Biscuit Sandwiching Machines

Potential Problems and Solutions

Biscuit and cookie production can sometimes present problems. Below is a look at some of the common mixing problems, as well as their solutions.

  • Dough is too sticky to roll – When the dough is too sticky for you to roll it out properly, then this is an obvious mixing problem. The probable cause of this is that the dough was not thoroughly chilled, or too little flour was used during mixing. In order to solve this problem, you will need to cover and chill the dough sufficiently.
  • Dough is too dry – When the dough turns out too dry during mixing, then this could be as a result of having used too much flour to mix the dough. The best solution to overcoming this problem would be to dribble in some vegetable oil until the dough reaches the exact consistency that is desired.

TechTalks discussion

Malted milk biscuits creaming mixing time
Please advise on the mixing time of the first stage, the creaming stage of malted milk biscuit via using a spiral mixer.

Chemical reaction during mixing biscuit dough
Want to know what type of chemical reaction takes place during mixing (biscuit dough)

Vertical spindle mixer for sponge dough
Just wanted to know how prevalent are the vertical twin-spindle mixer still used in the industry for mixing Sponge dough for crackers? In the olden days, it was quite common but as I understand many have discontinued that practice today. What could be the possible reason for it? 

Imperfection in shortbread cookies using rotary cookie machine
We recently bought a rotary moulder and started making shortbread cookies. We have several rollers and some are really forgiving and make great cookies with different recipes but the one we need to use is not forgiving at all and we cannot have 100% of good-looking cookies (75% at best). They either have bits of dought missing or have very tiny holes which makes a bad looking cookie once baked, I don't know if it is what you call blisters. We are probably doing something wrong either with the recipe, the mixing, resting or dough temperature, and or baking. I would really appreciate any advice or guidelines to follow so can make perfect cookies.

Leading image: By leungchopan/

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