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Biscuits

Biscuit is a small flat thin pieces of pastry that have been baked to a low moisture content.

 


The term cookie is a sweet or hardly sweet thin to small chunky product, again baked to a low moisture content and with long shelf life. Although the two terms could only be two variations of names of the same products depending weather you have a British or an American manufacturer. Cookies are most commonly baked until crisp or just long enough that they remain soft, but some kinds of cookies are not baked at all.

Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles, using an array of ingredients including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, nuts or dried fruits. The softness of the cookie may depend on how long it is baked.

Cracker is a open textured thin, dry biscuit which is by rule salty with many different types of flavors added (cheese, bacon etc). Cracker is usually low calorie product because they are made with low fat ingredients and contain small amounts of sugar or entirely without sugar. Because most crackers are round, they are then produced on the rotary cut line. Stick cracker is produced rotary cut forming or extrusion forming.

Wafer is a crisp, often sweet, very thin, flat, and dry biscuit with rhomboid indentations on surfaceof the biscuit, often used to decorate ice cream. Wafers can also be made into sandwich cookies with cream flavouring between the two wafers.. The surface or the wafer may also be patterned with insignia of the food’s manufacturer or may be pattern less.  Wafer is made from pourable batter and then placed in baking plates which are then baked into wafer oven. These are baked into thin sheets these sheets are then filled by different creams varieties .These sheets are then cut into small fingers or cubes.

Cake is a soft sweet product made from batter rather than dough. Cakes normally contain a combination of flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents (such as yeast or baking powder). Cakes usually have some kind of fillings; chocolate, jam, dessert sauces and often with different types of icing and decoration (marzipan, sugar icing, and dried fruit). Cakes have to be produced in very hygienic conditions as because its very prone for microbial infestation. Factory workers have to wash hands wear aprons and face masks and hair covers . General shelf life for cakes varies from country to country but for sliced cakes its three month.

The history of biscuit goes back to Ancient Romans. A recipe was found from a Roman chef Apicius who was making biscuits from a fine wheat flour that was boiled than spread on the table and left to dry and cut into shapes and fried in a pan. He then served them with honey or pepper.
Because the first known biscuits were boiled then fried this type of product was called in Latin Bis Coctus meaning twice cooked.

Biscuits were popular throughout the history because they could ,if stored in a airtight containers stay fresh for long time. This was of course important in age with no refrigeration means. They were especially popular with travelers, sea or otherwise for the same reasons easy storage and long lasting freshness.

During The 17th and 18th Centuries in Europe, baking was a carefully controlled profession, managed through a series of ‘guilds’ or professional associations. To become a baker, one had to complete years of apprenticeship working through The ranks of apprentice, journeyman, and finally master baker. Not only this, the amount and quality of biscuits baked were also carefully monitored.

In The Industrial Revolution in The 19th century technology improved and the price of sugar and flour dropped. Chemical leavening agents, such as baking soda, became available and a profusion of cookie recipes occurred. This led to the development of industrial made cookies.

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