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A Guide to Industrial Sponge Cake Processing

A Guide to Industrial Sponge Cake Processing

PROCESS CRITERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPONGE CAKE

OBJECTIVE:
Issues to be considered in the process in the production of commercial quality sponge cake.
Taste / Texture and baked color

Product shelf-life Cake: E.R.H. pH

Cake texture and flexibility and influence on secondary processing

  • Mouthfeel
  • Baked Colour
  • Residual moisture 
  • Bottom: top surface appearance: Porous or closed texture
  • Bottom: top surface caramelised.
  • Baking loss 

INGREDIENTS: Physical attributes

Flour Type

  • i.e. heat-treated; chlorinated, untreated.
  • Extraction rate
  • Protein content
  • Wet gluten content
  • Water adsorption rate
  • Sieved 
  • Particle size distribution

Sugar

  • Particle size granularity
  • Solubility

BULK GRANULATED SUGAR AFTER BEING TRANSPORTED TO VARIUS STORAGE SILOS

Bulk granulated sugar after being transported to varius storage silos

SHORTENING / FAT: (Liquid or Plasticised Crystals)

Conversion from an oil to a plastified fat, requires a minimum of 24 hours for the crystal structure to stabilise, other-wise there is a variation on the batter process and baked product quality.

SHORTENING / FAT : (Liquid or Plasticised Crystals)

INFLUENCE ON PRODUCT QUALITY

Influence on product quality

FACTORS INFLUENCING SHORTENING & PRODUCT QUALITY 

  • Storage Capacity
  • Controlled Standing Time
  • Melting Point Complete
  • Slip Point / Plastic Range
  • Solid Fractions / Liquid Fractions
  • Fat Crystalisation For Improved Baking Performance

Physical Changes: 
From An Oil To A Plasticied Shortening Density And Plasticity
Chemical Changes:
Melting Point And Slip Point

Emulsifiers

Shelf-life Variations

Emulsifiers

EMULSIFIER ANALYSIS

Stabilisation of oil and water emulsions. All emulsifiers are surface-active agents which can promote emulsification of oil and water.

They contribute to batter aeration, giving rise to increased volume and improved crumb structure. They are also essential in the preparation of high ratio cakes where high levels of moisture and sugar are used in relation to the flour content. Viscosity control, when added to batter containing sugar crystals dispersed in fat are capable of reducing the viscosity of the system by forming a coating on the sugar crystal, modifying the flow properties of the batter.

WHOLE EGG                Fresh; frozen; dried (Reconstituted) 
EGG ALBUMEN            Fresh; frozen; dried Reconstituted)
EGG YOLK Fresh;         Frozen; dried (Reconstituted) 
BAKING POWDER        Slow or fast acting

INGREDIENT WATER COOLING TOWER

Ingredient water cooling tank

INGREDIENT (COLD) WATER TEMPERATURE 30°C

CHEMICAL INGREDIENTS INCORRECT INTERACTION

A little knowledge is dangerous? There is a lack of understanding between the product and the process.

Chemical ingredients incorrect interaction

INGREDIENT RATIO

Ratio of Flour, Egg, Sugar, Shortening, Emulsifier (3.5%); Baking Powder, Water. Eliminate the potential for free water, which could contribute to sponge cake blistering.

PROCESS

MIXING METHOD

Emulsion Process. I.e. Water, Egg, Oil, Emulsifier. 
Sugar incorporation with liquid phase ingredients
Soluble ingredients at pre-mix stage. I.e. Milk Powder, Sugar, etc.
Batter hydration and rheology i.e. Pre-mix batter density, pH.

CAKE BATTER MIXER: PRE-MIX HOMOGENOUS CAKE BATTER

CAKE BATTER MIXER: PRE-MIX HOMOGENOUS CAKE BATTER

BATTER HOLDING VESSEL

BATTER HOLDING VESSEL

Density (0.92 g/cc) temperature (22°C), ph. 6.9-7.0) Frequency of mixing, pre-mix holding tank, stirrer or not. Vessel capacity. Vessel profile, side taper, conical, flat, avoiding blending of cake batters, through Laminar Flow issues, i.e. Contamination of batters within the holding vessel Method of pumping into vessel, direct, against side wall, conical displacement Stirred Frequency of changing the filters.

CONTINUOS MIXER AERATOR

CONTINUOS MIXER AERATOR

Batter rheology between batches.
Aerated batter density, 0.5 to 0.8 g / cc (0.62 g/cc)
Batter thickness 4.0 mm
Sponge thickness 8.5 mm
Band release agent and application.
Manifold design and setting-up gap : (3.6 - 3.6 - 3.5 - 3.5 - 3.5 - 3.6 - 3.6 mm)
Batter distribution as it is being pumped through the manifold and 
synchronisation with oven band speed.
Air cell structure.

INDIRECT GAS FIRED OVEN

Sponge cake processing indirect gas fired oven

IMPORTANCE OF: Oven band top and bottom surface condition. Ie.flat, black, beeswaxed, graphite skid bars, 
Solid heat time to start up stabilised baking conditions, pre-conditioning oven 
with steam, prior to production start-up.
Point of extraction within the oven.
Heat spillage
Baking Profile:
“Flat Profile” Even temperature in all zones. 
“Rising Profile” Low temperature in zone 1 progressively rising in zones 2 
and 3. ,
“Falling Profile” High temperature in zone 1 progressively falling through 
Zones 2 and 3.
Baking time
Heat Ratio Top / Bottom
Humidity control
Zone Integrity
Stripping Knife
Oven Band Tracking
Steam: Is steam injected, if so is it wet steam or dry steam, if so where and 
quantity

AIR CELLS CO-ALESCING DURING THE BAKING PROCESS

AIR CELLS CO-ALESCING DURING THE BAKING PROCESS

Air cell co-alescing during the baking proces

IMPROVEMENT: AFTER RESOLVING THE PROCESS MIXING ISSUES

improvement after resolving the process mixing issues

CREAM SANDWICH LAYER CAKE

CREAM SANDWICH LAYER CAKE

MINI ROLLS

mini rolls


Leading image: By Spalnic/Shutterstock.com

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